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EvidenceSynthesis is part of HADES.


This R package contains routines for combining causal effect estimates and study diagnostics across multiple data sites in a distributed study. This includes functions for performing meta-analysis and forest plots.


  • Perform a traditional fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analysis, and create a forest plot.
  • Use non-normal approximations of the per-data-site likelihood function to avoid bias when facing small and zero counts.


# Simulate some data for this example:
populations <- simulatePopulations()

# Fit a Cox regression at each data site, and approximate likelihood function:
fitModelInDatabase <- function(population) {
  cyclopsData <- Cyclops::createCyclopsData(Surv(time, y) ~ x + strata(stratumId),
                                            data = population,
                                            modelType = "cox")
  cyclopsFit <- Cyclops::fitCyclopsModel(cyclopsData)
  approximation <- approximateLikelihood(cyclopsFit, parameter = "x", approximation = "custom")
approximations <- lapply(populations, fitModelInDatabase)
approximations <-"rbind", approximations)

# At study coordinating center, perform meta-analysis using per-site approximations:
estimate <- computeBayesianMetaAnalysis(approximations)
#          mu     mu95Lb   mu95Ub      muSe       tau     tau95Lb   tau95Ub     logRr   seLogRr
# 1 0.5770562 -0.2451619 1.382396 0.4154986 0.2733942 0.004919128 0.7913512 0.5770562 0.4152011


This an R package with some parts implemented in Java.

System requirements

Requires R and Java.

Getting Started

  1. Make sure your R environment is properly configured. This means that Java must be installed. See these instructions for how to configure your R environment.

  2. In R, use the following commands to download and install EvidenceSynthesis:


User Documentation

Documentation can be found on the package website.

PDF versions of the documentation are also available:



Read here how you can contribute to this package.


EvidenceSynthesis is licensed under Apache License 2.0


This package is being developed in RStudio.

Development status